What is Silica Gel?

What is Silica Gel?
Published On:January 10, 2020 Revised On:December 28, 2023

We’ve all encountered those tiny packets labelled “Do Not Eat” that come with various products, such as shoes, electronics, and medicine. These packets are filled with a type of desiccant called silica gel.

This desiccant protects goods from moisture-related damage during storage and transportation. In this article, we’ll delve into what silica gel is, how it works, its diverse uses, and why it’s crucial for preserving the quality of products.

What is Silica Gel?

Silica gel is a granular and translucent substance made from silicon dioxide (SiO2). It’s created through a process called silica precipitation, where sodium silicate is mixed with a mineral acid, leading to the formation of silica particles. These particles are washed, dried, and processed into small beads or silica gel packets.

The desiccant is non-toxic and chemically inert, making it safe for various industries. The drying agent absorbs moisture from the air and controls humidity. The desiccant beads have thousands of pores that trap and retain water molecules from the surrounding air.

Properties and Characteristics

Silica gel exhibits unique properties and characteristics, making it an exceptional desiccant and valuable component in various applications. Understanding these properties is essential to harness its moisture-absorbing capabilities effectively.

  • Porous Structure: Silica gel features a highly porous structure, which provides an extensive surface area for moisture absorption. The numerous interconnected pores within its structure allow it to attract and retain water molecules efficiently.
  • High Adsorption Capacity: One of the most remarkable properties of silica gel is its high adsorption capacity. It can absorb up to 40% of its weight in water vapour, depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding environment. This exceptional moisture-holding capability makes it ideal for moisture control and preservation applications.
  • Chemical Inertness: The desiccant is chemically inert, meaning it does not react with other substances or release harmful chemicals during its moisture absorption process. This property ensures that silica gel remains safe for various industries, including food, pharmaceuticals, and electronics.
  • Thermal Stability: Silica gel exhibits excellent thermal stability, allowing it to maintain its moisture-absorbing properties over a wide temperature range. It can withstand exposure to both high and low temperatures without significantly affecting its adsorption capabilities.
  • Reusability: Another advantageous characteristic of desiccant is its reusability. After reaching its adsorption capacity, silica gel can be regenerated and restored to its original moisture-absorbing state by subjecting it to heat to remove the trapped moisture. This reusability reduces waste and makes it an eco-friendly choice for moisture control.

Applications of Silica Gel

Silica gel’s moisture-absorbing properties have made it useful in numerous industries and everyday applications. Its ability to create and maintain dry environments has led to a wide range of uses, ensuring the preservation and protection of various products.

  • Electronics Industry: The moisture absorber safeguards electronic devices and components. It is commonly used in electronic packaging to prevent moisture-related damage, such as corrosion and short circuits, during shipping and storage.
  • Pharmaceutical Sector: Silica gel finds extensive application in the pharmaceutical industry. It is utilized in drug packaging to protect medications, vitamins, and supplements from moisture-induced degradation, thus maintaining their potency and shelf life.
  • Food Packaging:  The moisture absorber is employed in the food industry to extend the shelf life of various products. Placed in food packaging, especially with moisture-sensitive items like beef jerky and certain snacks, silica gel effectively reduces humidity levels and inhibits spoilage.
  • Leather and Textile Preservation: Silica gel is commonly used in packaging for leather goods, textiles, and clothing items. By absorbing excess moisture, it prevents mould growth, mildew, and the degradation of materials, ensuring their quality and longevity.
  • Camera and Optical Equipment: Photographers and those using optical equipment rely on silica gel to protect their valuable gear from humidity damage, particularly in humid or damp environments.
  • Industrial Applications:  The moisture absorber finds diverse uses in industrial settings. It protects metal tools and machinery from rust and corrosion during storage and transportation.
  • Household Applications: Silica gel bags can be found in everyday household products like shoeboxes, medicine cabinets, and certain food containers. They protect various household items from moisture damage and improve their shelf life.
  • Pet Care Products:  The moisture absorber is used in pet care products, such as cat litter and pet food, to control moisture and maintain freshness.
  • Seed and Seedling Preservation: Desiccant packets are employed in the agricultural sector to maintain the viability of seeds and seedlings by controlling humidity levels.
  • Cosmetics and Toiletries:  The moisture absorber is used in cosmetic and toiletry products to reduce moisture and extend their shelf life.
  • Documents and Artifacts: Silica gel is utilized in archival storage to protect documents, artwork, and artefacts from moisture-related deterioration.
  • Car and Automotive Applications:  The moisture absorber is employed in various automotive parts to prevent moisture-induced damage and ensure longevity.

Packaging and Storage Considerations

When stored in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight, silica gel packs typically have a shelf life of 1 year. This time frame can vary depending on the amount of water they’re exposed to and the humidity level of their environment. The more moisture it absorbs, the faster it becomes saturated and needs replacing.

The time a silica packet remains effective depends on the type used and its moisture weight when it is initially sealed. Cobalt chloride-coated desiccants come with a moisture indicator colour that changes with the amount of moisture absorbed, allowing users to know when it needs to be replaced. Non-indicating types can be tested periodically with a humidity meter to determine whether the desiccants need to be replaced.

In some cases, silica packets may only last for a short time if placed in areas experiencing high humidity levels or exposed to direct sunlight, which can reduce their effectiveness over time. Additionally, packages containing food products may need to be replaced more frequently due to the growth of mould and bacteria, which can occur with prolonged exposure to high humidity levels.

Ultimately, how long a silica gel bag lasts will depend on factors such as its initial weight in moisture, type, storage conditions and exposure level. To ensure optimal protection against water damage and mould growth, it is essential to check the condition of the packets periodically and replace them when needed.

Types of Silica Gel

Silica gel has various types and formulations designed to cater to specific applications and moisture-absorbing needs. Understanding the different types of silica gel is essential for selecting the most appropriate desiccant for a particular purpose. Below are some common types of silica gel:

  1. Regular White Silica Gel

Regular white silica gel is the most commonly used type of silica gel. It appears as small, transparent or semi-transparent beads, and its main function is effectively absorbing moisture in various environments. Regular white silica gel is often found in moisture-absorbing packets accompanying electronics, shoes, and leather goods.

  1. Indicating Silica Gel

Indicating silica gel is similar to regular white silica gel but contains an added moisture-sensitive chemical, usually cobalt chloride or methyl violet. This chemical changes colour as the silica gel absorbs moisture, allowing users to gauge the saturation level visually. When the silica gel is active and dry, it typically appears blue or orange, depending on the chemical used. As it becomes saturated, the colour changes, indicating the need for regeneration or replacement. Indicating silica gel is particularly useful in applications where it is crucial to know precisely when the desiccant must be recharged.

  1. Silica Gel Beads vs. Silica Gel Crystals

Silica gel is available in two main physical forms: beads and crystals. Silica gel beads are spherical and often found in regular white, indicating silica gel types. On the other hand, silica gel crystals are irregularly shaped and commonly used in self-indicating or orange silica gel. The choice between beads and crystals depends on the specific application, as each offers distinct advantages regarding moisture absorption efficiency and visual indication.

Handling and Safety Precautions

One common concern when encountering silica gel packets is whether they pose any toxicity risk, especially with the prominently displayed cautionary “Do Not Eat” labels. The good news is that silica gel packets are generally non-toxic and safe to handle.

Silica gel packets predominantly comprise silicon dioxide, an essential mineral in various natural substances like sand and quartz. As a result, silica gel is chemically inert and does not contain any harmful or toxic substances. This inherent safety profile makes it suitable for use in diverse industries, including food and pharmaceutical packaging.

The moisture absorber’s primary purpose is to absorb moisture effectively, and it does not undergo any chemical reactions during this process. Silica gel does not release harmful substances into the body when ingested accidentally. In most cases, if someone were to consume a small amount of silica gel, it would pass through the digestive system without causing any adverse effects.

Although silica gel is not toxic, it is still best to avoid ingesting it. The small packets are not intended for consumption and can pose a choking hazard, especially for children and pets. Therefore, it is essential to keep silica gel packets out of reach and dispose of them responsibly after use.

Effects of Ingesting Silica Gel Beads

In the event of consumption, the particles will likely pass through the body without causing any harm. However, if a large amount of desiccants is ingested, it can cause serious health issues such as stomach pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Some moisture absorbers may contain small amounts of cobalt chloride, which can be toxic if consumed in large quantities.

If these desiccant packets are accidentally ingested along with the product, it is important to seek medical attention. Handle the desiccant cautiously and store it away from children and pets.


Silica gel is a widely used desiccant or drying agent that can absorb moisture and help protect items from moisture damage. At Stream Peak, we take pride in providing quality silica gel, which undergoes rigorous daily in-house quality checks in our dedicated QA lab. As a trusted manufacturer, we offer a wide range of silica gel desiccant bags, ensuring reliable moisture control for various applications.

Our commitment to excellence is further demonstrated by our adherence to ISO 19001 and 14001 certifications, assuring you of products that meet international quality and environmental management standards.  For more information about our packaging solutions or any inquiries you may have, please don’t hesitate to contact us.  Our team of packaging experts is ready to assist you and find the best moisture control solutions tailored to your specific needs.


  1. What are silica gel beads? The drying agent is a granular, porous form of silica commonly used as a desiccant to absorb moisture. It is made from silicon dioxide and has a high surface area, allowing it to absorb water molecules effectively.
  2. What is a desiccant? A desiccant is a substance that is used to absorb moisture. Desiccants are commonly used in various applications, such as food packaging, electronics, and pharmaceuticals, to prevent moisture from damaging sensitive components.
  3. How does the desiccant absorb moisture? Packets of silica gel absorb moisture through adsorption, which attracts and holds water molecules onto the material’s surface. The desiccant has a high surface area and a pore network, allowing it to attract and retain moisture molecules.
  4. Are silica gel packets safe to use? Yes, the desiccant is safe to use. It is non-toxic and does not pose any health risks. The drying agent is commonly used in various applications, such as food packaging and cosmetics, where it comes in contact with the skin or food.
  5. How long do the absorbers last? The lifespan of the desiccant packets depends on the amount of moisture it absorbs and the environment in which it is used. The dry agent can be regenerated by heating it in an oven, which extends its lifespan and makes it a cost-effective and sustainable option for moisture control.
  6. Can the desiccant be reused? The desiccant can be reactivated for reuse by heating it in an oven at around 80 Degrees Celsius for about 15 minutes. This will draw out any accumulated moisture so the packet can be used again until it needs to be replaced or reactivated.
  7. What are the different types? There are several types, including powder form, indicating, non-indicating, and beads. Indicating gels changes colour as it absorbs moisture, while non-indicating gels remain the same colour. The beads are small, spherical beads commonly used in air conditioning and dehumidification applications.
  8. Where can I buy silica gel beads? The absorber can be purchased from various packaging suppliers and retailers, including online stores, hardware stores, and packaging suppliers. Ensure that the desiccant purchased is suitable for the intended application.
  9. What are some common applications? The drying agent is commonly used in various applications, including electronics, pharmaceuticals, food packaging, cosmetics, and storage containers. It is used to prevent moisture from damaging sensitive components, extend the shelf life of products, and absorb excess moisture.